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Vol. 26 (65) № 4 2013
Philosophy. Culturology. Political sciences. Sociology

Chapter I

Voznyak S.V.
Martin Heidegger's thinking peculiarity
The article displays M. Heidegger's thinking style peculiarities which agree with his ideas about the thinking essence. The author states that the German philosopher extremely stresses the nature of the philosophical thinking, its asking character, its moving not around the subject but into the subject and total covering the thinker himself. Ontological theme in M. Heidegger's works is viewed as 'thinking which is situated in being'. Special attention is paid to Heidegger's study of the correlation of thought and language. Language is mainly regarded not as a means of thought but as a special surrounding in which ontological meaning develops. It is the language, that is viewed by Heidegger as the substratum of thought, and this aspect sets Heidegger apart from other classical metaphysicians.

Ryskeldieva L.T.
On Methodology of Research in History of Philosophy
Synoposis. In this article the question of place of researches in history of philosophy in the system of philosophical knowledge is raised and answered. Relevant and latest interpretation of methodological collision, which complicates theoretical analysis of goals and work methods of historians of philosophy, is given in this article. The prospects of the history of philosophy as theoretical science are shown in this article and are revealed as danger to the autonomy of philosophical discourse, which can deprive philosophical text of its specific features. Characteristic of the autonomy and specific features are given
and the issue of their preservation is raised. Comparative philosophy, problematic of the "Another" and research of communication facilitate the solution of this problem. In the history of philosophy they allow the chapter of communicative practical philosophy to be seen, in which context the research in history of philosophy become a discipline of reading and comprehension of philosophical texts, which serves to regulate the relationship between the author and the reader. Being exposed to it helps save philosophy from the danger of philologismus and preserves specific features of the philosophical text.

Titov A.V.
Dialectic aspect in the development of formal logical calculations (as an antithesis of abstract mathematics and mathematical natural sciences)
The dialectic party of the development of mathematics, and mathematical logic based on which lies antithesis of the idea and phenomenon or as defined by A.F.Losev - of abstract mathematics and mathematical natural sciences is considered in this article. The dialectics of the development of the forms of logical calculation, finds itself in division of forms of formal logic in the various types of the logical calculations arising as a result of consideration of estimates on various algebraic structures.

Zinnurova L.I.
And again to the issue of human qualities

Zarapin O.V.
Configuration of the meaning of the subject field of the history of philosophy

Zhaldak N. N.
Categories of explanation of innovativeness in the social consciousnesses
For explanation of innovativeness in social consciousness the following categories of causal explanation of human activity have methodological importance: forces, ability, needs, interests. The necessity of innovativeness in social consciousnesses is connected with the fact that the economics basically used nonrenewable resources. In this case for the survival of people the constant growth of the productive forces is required. It is required that the forces that people take from nature to meet their needs were greater than those they spend on production. This is caused by the fact that people act according to their interests and use the resources that are easier to obtain, and for the future more forces for extraction are needed.

Sokotun Y. A.
Technocratic utopias in the ethic context

Stepanov V.
The missing premise in technological singularity reasoning
The article examines the phenomenon of technological singularity, the history of the problem and some of its philosophical implications. It is found out that works in the field mainly describe postsingular world, a place of a person in it, problems with identity and problems of human-AI communication. Reasoning about technological singularity cannot be made without mentioning what is intellect, brain, etc. Thus authors simply omit the issue on the reason that science still doesn't have a proper and sufficient knowledge in the
field. But whole postsingular systems are based on some implicit understanding of what intelligence is and how brain works. This premise is always avoided and there is no straight way to find out the sources of author's vision on such concepts as mind, brain, intelligence. Therefore it is crucial to make the always avoided premise clear, so that the whole reasoning would be as clear and comprehensive.

Turpetko A. S.
Axiology Outside Metaphysics: Heidegger’ Interpretation Of The Philosophy of Nietzsche

Страхов В.В.
Телесный горизонт человеческого существования в философской антропологии

Volkov O. H.
Analytics of ‘ego’ in ontology of М. Heidegger and tоtаllоgy of М. Кizima

Bekirova L.S., Ilchenko I.A.
A woman in islam: history and modern age
Muslim countries are beginning to play a major role in the present-day international relations. Islam is a dominant ideology in many countries of the world. It is represented in the Ukrainian multicultural and multi-religious space as well. Muslims and representatives of other religions are often wrapped in controversy. A woman dressed in a hijab is a reason of particular misunderstanding in a society. Therefore we consider an issue of women's status in the classical and modern Islam especially urgent. Islam regulates all aspects of its followers' life. What is remarkable is that there is no clear division into secular and religious spheres in Islam, and all aspects of human life are governed by a law that is religious
by its nature. It's Shari'ah that is based on the Quran and the Sunnah. Reforms in the area of women's rights, which have affected such spheres of life as marriage, divorce and inheritance, have been carried out since Islam's origination. However, the Quran itself continues to indicate an unequal position of women in the Muslim community. This fact is the subject of intense debate in the contemporary Muslim community.

Ivanova R.
Crossing the barriers of three impressions: the condition for continuous communication
Being specified as a social creature, a person has always been in a permanent state of pre–communicative or communicative act. One of the conditions for a possibility to come into the state of continuous communication, namely, the condition for overcoming barriers of impression, is researched in the present article. The object of the research is communication, the subject of the research is the conditions for communication. The objective of the research is identification of some conditions for the possibility of
continuous communication.

Gaponenko E.P.
 F. Brentano and K. Tvardovsky: the principles of scientific research of Lvov-Warsaw School representatives
The article is devoted to the study of the ideas and tendencies, which were generated by the representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School. The author stresses that philosophical views of the representatives of the school weren't homogeneous and the majority of them focused on the analytical methods, scepticism in relation to traditional philosophу. The purpose of this article is to identify the general methodological principles that guided the representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School, despite the diversity of interests, the research areas and foreign diversity of methods. The article is about the research methods, which were used by the representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School from Franz Brentano to Stepan Baley. The author concludes that the hallmark works of S. Baley is a synthesis of psychoanalytic and philosophical approaches to the study of psychic phenomena and interpretation of literary works of famous artists.

Kulik A.V.
Plato’s Thoughts Concerning Chaos
Plato's concepts about the stage of the world's existence that preceded cosmos are systematized. The philosopher's thoughts about phenomena in actual reality of primary chaotic essence of the world are pointed out. Plato's philosophical position about proper attitude to chaotic phenomena is reconstructed. It is stated that Plato substantiates the necessity of ordering of chaotic phenomena. This philosopher develops ideas expressed earlier by Anaxagoras about rational ordering of disorder. Plato specifies Anaxagoras's
study interpreting rational ordering as bringing chaotic phenomena to correct numerical relations. Also the development of the given Plato's ideas in the studies of Platonists is considered. It is settled that the development went in two basic directions. Firstly, Plato's ideas concerning what exactly chaos is before it transforms into cosmos were specified. Secondly, Plato's ideas about what precisely chaos is in everyday life were specified.

Poplavska T.N., Kondruseva V.M.
What a human of noosphere civilization will be like?

Artemenko B.
Noosphere as new level of human responsibility

Denisenko A.V.
Аnthropomorphism as the axiological component of the syncretic form of spiritual being


Chapter II
Sociology. Social Philosophy

Donnikova I.A.
Conceptual foundations of analysis of social self-organization as a human-dimension phenomenon

Pareniuk A.
Conceptual instruments of americ education
The article describes methodological substantiation of theoretical developments in philosophy of education. The metaphysics of totality is used as a methodological basis for a given analysis. Using an integral approach, the author explains the role of americ education in fostering a person's adaptation to stable relationships in the society, harmonization of his vital activities with the environment and the changing conditions of social life.

Shelkovaya N.V.
Flight over the cuckoo’s nest, or What we leave after itself
The article interprets the problem of responsibility, reveals the main reasons of irresponsibility, leading to global crisis. These reasons are egoism as a departure from God, Universe, people, nature and self-closure in the shell of «ego», and inability to love. The attention is paid to the underlying sourses of the dominant of the modern civilization – the will of power and violence. These sourses are complexes of inferiority, organically inherent to the egoistical personality, generating envy and aggression. The author warns against abuse by science by the «dangerous knowledge», unpredictable consequences of the scientific discoveries and selects two paths of development of humanity – a way of departure from God to «ego», from theocentrism to antropocentrism and mentalocentrism, the path of suicide, the destruction of humanity and a way of leaving from «ego» and returning to living (outside any religious confession) God that led to divine freedom, divine love to all beings, and thus, to divine, that is, universal responsibility of each person. It is a way of life and prosperity of mankind and humanity. And the choice of development of the path of humanity depends on people themselves, on virtue of their inherent freedom.

Popov I.S.
Opposition of science and church through the prism of centuries (society look)
There are substantial problems of the society world, that need to be constantly watched, among them in particular is a problem of native distinction of scientific and religious. A monde must be afraid of the suggestions of the world, general way, and most of all - fraternities. Scientists who followed the way of religion are the betrayers of scientific truth. However everybody must decide on what is evil, and what is good.
The certain hierarchies of church publicly apologize for the past 'tortures' of science, and the others swear, that there were no 'tortures' at all or they were casual; if some philosophers 'academically' discuss an enactment divine in elementary classes; if it is talked despite facts, that Einstein and Pavlov were god worshippers; you must know that this is just a beginning. We are intended to be returned to the Middle Ages. However will 'New Revival' follow these 'New Middle Ages'? Everybody must decide, the time of negotiations passed at the table, the time to speak the language of facts has come, but it is needed for this purpose, that most sciences unite against a general enemy.

Volosatova M. A.
Analysis of S. N.  Bulgakov's philosophy of economy by L. A. Zander

Batorii V. V.
Market relations as factor of regress of noosphere (axiological perspective)
The acceptance of market economy on the world wide scale has disastrous consequences for ecology in the whole world as well as for intellectual values. Intellectual values are an important part of humankind and it defines the direction of the development of human conscience and human's society. This problematic relates to all fields of social activity of humankind. This is the main, the most important and crucial intertwinement of human's conscience and society. Without any ground for mutual resolution of this problem, the humanity has only one way: self-destruction and pursuit for profit. Such tendencies are
observed in most spheres of human's activity. This situation destroys any possibilities for achievement of noosphere, as it was understated by V. Vernadsky. As a consequence of this all, it is possible to say, that humankind is currently regressing in the sense of intellectual values.

Gomanuk M.A.
Project “Democracy verbatim”: from sociological research to public hearing in a theatre format
The article presents the project of organizing public hearing based on the complex of events, including sociological research, theatre technique "verbatim", documentary performances, and public after-premiere discussions. Theoretical grounding for humanistic, socio-political and socio-engineering resources of a documentary theatre through the example of a single project is also given in the article. The article gives the conclusion, that the combination of sociological methods of gathering information and theatre formats
(verbatim-theatre, evidence-based theatre, storytelling) of presenting data gives an opportunity for organizing such public hearings, that could be both attractive to broad public and correspond to the actual problems of the local community. Besides, the material, obtained in the course of the realization of such a project, may have a scientific value - first of all, in the field of sociology and sociolinguistics.


Chapter III
Culturology. Philosophy of Culture

Korotchenko Y.M.
Valuative content of the “hero” concept
It is revealed in the article the valuative content of the "hero" concept.
The hero, therefore, regardless of the specific contexts is always someone who shows how to live, to speak, to act, to win, to love, to hate, to feel and evaluate, to interpret the world according to the valuative that he embodies, makes visible and observed and the center of which he becomes. The content of the "hero" concept gives the possibility for modeling hero-centered valuative as opposed to others, nonpersonalized, components of valuative models. It is also emphasized that value-centered valuative model the best known from non-personalized ones.

Donskaja E.V.
Metametaphorism and pattern language of art culture

Konoplyova A.
Communicative space of contemporary art
This article deals with studying the specifics of communicative space of contemporary art, it analyzes the nature and main characteristics. A separate analysis devoted to the contemporary art-industry, describes the features of contemporary art and the embodiment of the communication process. In was found out in the study that the communicative space of art consists of three components: the subject-object communication, density and length. With the development of modern art the object changes considerably, giving it the active component. The high density is achieved through the use of PRtechnologies, organizations of art industry. In turn, the length is formed due to the performative nature of art and the use of existing, familiar characters.

Nikolaenko D.A.
Issues of corporeality in the context of researches of communication
This article is devoted to issues of corporeality in the works of J.Habermas, as well as comparison of the approach of the corporeality within the communicative action theory and phenomenology.

Balkind K.L.
Chronotop in Fine Art
Traditionally being applied to the fine art, time and space are regarded separately. The study of the problem of chronotop in the fine art as the unities of time and space – is the aim of the given research. The problems of representation of space have been studied quite well nowadays. The problem of time representation and its importance for the fine art is not studied enough yet, that's why the given research will be rather essential for solution of theoretical and practical artistic tasks. A peculiar attention is paid to the methods of representation of time in creative work. The methods of observation, comparative analysis and analysis of preceding experience are used in this research. In order to learn the problem and the probable way of its solution a number of instances are adduced. The definition of organizing the role of time-space relations in creation of artistic image in the fine art is the main result of the given research. This research has a theoretical and practical importance for artistic and pedagogical activities.

Blokha Y.Y.
Reinterpreting by V.G. Korolenko values of Buddhism
This research considers the features of reinterpreting by Volodymyr Galaktionovych Korolenko, one of the most famous Ukrainian and Russian thinkers, humanists and human rights activists of the late XIX – early XX century, the values of Buddhism, particularly the doctrine of reincarnation, which is totally contrary to the Christian view of the uniqueness and finite earthly life; justifies the relevance of this process to Russian philosophy and literature of that period; based on the analysis of the «oriental tale» named «The Need» it has been found out that, according to the philosopher, in the recognition of individual rights for this world religion was the major value orientation and decisive factor in the development of personality, the way of strengthening internal freedom, which was an important factor in the era of total confusion, pessimism and crisis of established moral and ethic standards.

Chumachenko O.P.
Creative activity as a factor of sociocultural development (the Western European context)
This article examines creativity as a factor of socio-cultural development (Western European context). Creativity as the form of self-expression is a fundamental category of development of a person. From the beginning of Antiquity by times of the Renaissance the myth is a basis of formation of anthropological measurements of creative activity. With gradual transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance creativity ceases to be collective activity, creativity becomes means of individual perception and the relation to collective experience which gives the grounds to creativity examining as individual activity. The aesthetics of individualism ХІХ - beginnings ХХ represents itself as the right for freedom of creative
activity. The author sees creativity as a certain form, which displays the main stages of socio-cultural development of a particular historical period. The author examines the changing forms of data and concludes that creativity is a factor of socio-cultural development (Western European context).

Chumachenko O.P.
On the question of creative activity problems in the sociocultural context in Hellenism and early Christianity
In this article we describe the phenomenon of creative activity in the context of socio-cultural development in the Hellenistic age and early Christianity. Creative activity acts as a form of adaptation to social being. Creativity is an ability of corporal and spiritual dissolution of the individual in socially natural order of life through the apathetic relation to it. In II century BC creativity becomes the exemplary form of social behaviour and in due course and professionally class. It was assisted by the policy of Roman Empire supported entertainments which were direct on external appeal, and thanks to it the requirement for
increase of vocational training of actors and musicians was felt. Creativity acts as a form of internally spiritual condition.

Zhurmii N.
Axiology of national's archetypes in the person warrior-protector, as part of heroic pantheon in Ukrainian culture of the early Twenty-first century
The article presents an analysis of Ukraine's popular monument military pilots who died during the Second World War. The analysis of the monument to Leonid Bykov and character from the film "Go to fight only the older" - Captain Titarenko. The features of the axiological evaluation of this monument. The analysis of the main characteristics of the warrior-hero. It's archetypes: «Prometheus», «The heart like a torch», «Knight». The article argues that "the philosophy of the heart" is pivotal to the unity of the Ukrainian people. This is part of axiological constant Ukrainian society. This may help in finding the ideology of society and the direction of the formation of spiritual values.

Mehmet Ali Aydin.
Concept of human in the ‘language picture of the world’ on the basis of works of Ivan Bunin and Yahya Kemal

Chapter IV
 Political Sciences

Grushetsky B. P.
Bibliometrical Analysis of foreign-policy priorities  of  Bulgaria (based on materials of journal “Mezhdunarodni otnosheniya”, 2001-2012)

Grosfeld E.V.
Lobbying as an informal political practices in Ukraine: problems of interpretation of the institutional
This article investigates the problem of the institutional interpretation of lobbying as informal political practice. The study of informal political practices in modern Ukraine reveals the parameters of the social system, in which politicians act. It is proved that the process of political modernization requires accessing civilized mechanisms of interaction between the government and public institutions. The problem of representation of the interests of citizens in government is very urgent for Ukraine, where public policy is carried out on the principles of secrecy and opacity for a look from the outside. Without thinking of informal political practices it is difficult to evaluate the dynamics of institutional policy in Ukraine.

Gabriyelyan A.
State policy in the area of financing of higher education in Ukraine
The basic global trends in higher education funding, as well as indicators that characterize the level of financial support by the state education system are considered. By analyzing and comparing the relative and absolute indexes in the financing of higher education with indicators of more developed countries, we identify major flaws in the financing of higher education in Ukraine in the context of current global trends. Due to the comparative analysis of the higher education system of Ukraine with higher education systems of developed countries, and the analysis of statistical data on the financing of education in Ukraine we got
an opportunity to identify problems in the field of higher education of Ukraine, namely the lack of funding education, inefficient use of public resources, the lack of sufficient financial autonomy of higher educational institutions. It is impossible to improve the quality of higher education in our country without a solution to these problems.

Nikiforov A.R.
The Problem of Determining the Ukraine National Territory: Geopolitical Approach
In the article the problem of external and internal borders of the Ukrainian national territory is considered. Ethnic, physical and geographical, cultural and historical approaches to the definition of Ukrainian national space are adduced. Basing on the analysis of the spatial characteristics of modern Ukrainian territory it is concluded that Ukrainian state has problem borders and does not have cultural and historical unity. The conclusion that the split of Ukrainian cultural and historical space can be overcome by giving a new format to the basic ideological principles (to substitute current principles for acceptable for people of all krainian
regions) is justified.

Gibova E.S.
‘Ethnic media’: native approaches to definition of the concept
The article presents analysis of Ukrainian scientific approaches to the definition of «ethnic media». It is noted that the Ukrainian society is currently facing a new type of media that corresponds to the trends of national and cultural revival of ethnic groups. Despite the long tradition of studying mass communications in the domestic scientific literature understanding the media, owned by small local ethnic communities, or the concept of "public media" as an alternative to the dominant media is presented in fragments. This fact
confirms the necessity of comprehensive review of the scientific literature dealing with the problem. The purpose of this article is to analyze the ethnic media functioning, to determine its value and place in the system of mass communications.

Voloshena D.Y.
Ukraine in situation of choise between western and eastern integration vectors (economic aspect)
Western and eastern vectors of integration, presented by the EU and the Eurasian Economic Community, are dominant for Ukraine. The article is an example of how joining the EU or EEC is reflected in the dynamics of change in GDP before and after accession to these structures and Ukraine's place in the general picture of this comparison.
The EU and the EEC have different positions, though, because they have existed for different periods of time. The analysis shows that in the EU, despite the economic well-being, there is a tendency to depletion. In the EU, there is a decrease in the number of states with the highest rates of GDP. As for the EEC, it looks more promising because of the rapidly-growing GDP, the transition of states from one class to another, and, therefore, it is the most perspective vector for Ukraine.

Kiseleva N.V., Andrijchenkо-Fridrih A.V.
The demographic policy of Ukraine: the financial measuring
Here is made a short analysis of demographic politics conducted in Ukraine, the basic vector of which is directed to increase the birth-rate as one of factors of demographic strategy, favoring gaining specific weight of capable of working population. Comparison of basic demographic indicators in a regional aspect testifies to some positive changes in a demographic situation in some western areas of Ukraine and proceeding depopulation in other regions that does not cross out the problem of demographic crisis in a country from the order-paper. The analysis of financial making dynamics of demographic politics in Ukraine educed defects in the chart of payments of benefits in cash at birth of children in the period from 2006 to 2010 and positive changes in 2011, extra charges and receipts of these manuals related to modification of the system.

Chapter V

Terentieva L.M.
Assertoric syllogistics image: “the completeness” (I. Kant, V. Heisenberg) in General Parametric Systems Theory categories
The problem of "complete" theory status (I. Kant, V. Heisenberg) is investigated in categories of A.I. Ujemov system-parametric method. The author confronts the property of Aristotle assertoric syllogistics "completeness" (I. Kant) with physical theories "completeness" (V. Heisenberg). I. Kant explains the syllogistics steadiness and "completeness" in terms of "limits" existing in this science which studies only "formal rules of any thinking". The article introduces the idea that "complete" theories can be represented
as system models, which explicate limits of the "complete" theory with definite composition of generalsystem properties, or attributive system parameters. The Aristotle syllogistics steadiness can be denoted with a diversity of system attributive values: the system is "completed concerning the substratum and the structure", "minimal", "strong". These system properties are examined by A. Ujemov in the General Parametric Systems Theory.

Nikolko V.N.
The Sense and the Meaning of Conceptual Formalization of Natural Language
Some fundamental questions of methodology of science directly connected with the universal quality of scientific knowledge – formalization, are discussed. Attention is paid to insufficient study of formalization, formal systems, and formalisms. The terms 'conceptual formalization', 'symbolic (formula) formalization', 'program formalization', naming the main historical stages of the development of the formal method in science, are introduced. The content of conceptual formalization of natural language is revealed. The thesis on openness of conceptual formalization of natural language is substantiated for introducing more complicated speech constructions. Hence, through this simple sentences with complex noun nonpropositional phrases can be made up; complex sentences of narrative speech consisting of simple ones; various L-processes, interpreted as a set of sentences with the rules of transformation; axiomatics; identification processes, equations in algebras. It is also noted that conceptual formalization is in fact space where the most difficult problems of logical content are solved.

Tiaglo O.V.
Logic and probability aspect of the electronic justice prospect
Prospect of complete electronic justice is analyzed in the light of ability to assess legal arguments quantitatively. Concept of logic probability is in the core of this analysis. Specificity and range of application of separate Leibnizian approach in comparison with the "objective Bayesianism" is elucidated this way. A fundamental occasion that challenges any attempt to fulfil complete e-justice today is pointed out. This one is generated by essential role of human intuition in assigning of the initial data necessary to assess legal arguments quantitatively (argument diagram, probability of initial reasons, and strength of internal probability-relations). Presumably, completion of electronic justice will demand not only objective and powerful artificial intelligence but relevant artificial intuition as well.

Gavrilov N.I., Zyrin D.G.
Uncertainty as a form of reality
Uncertainty as a form of reality is manifested only in the subject-object coordinate system. Uncertainty is not a form of ignorance. Understanding the uncertainty is only possible as knowledge of ignorance. Initially, the uncertainty manifests itself in the form of visibility. In this format can only be described various properties of uncertainty, but there is no proper basis for an explanation. Uncertainty is the opposite of certainty. It arises when a certainty is transforming into its other self state. In this transition, one qualitative definiteness can't be strictly segregated from the other. Transformations of certainty in uncertainty and uncertainty in certainty have a subjective coloring. "The effect of the constants of binary choice" allows to overcome the "syndrome of uncertainty". Evaluation mechanism works automatically as
a built reflexive computer in the psyche of man. It allows to make the right choice on the principle of "either-or".

Galinovsky S.A.
Purposefulness in parametric general theory of systems
In the article the problems of defining purposefulness in GTS are researched. The main problem is the definition of purposeful system. Only a dynamical system can be a purposeful one, because only such system can transform for adaptation. If the system can't adopt - such system can't be a purposeful one. Definition of purposefulness is very important for the research of optimality of the dynamical system, because optimality and purpose are bound together and it's impossible to define optimality of system without knowing the aims. Purposefulness is explained with the help of cybernetics. Purposeful system is such a dynamical system that changed not only for adaptation but also for boosting the efficiency of the system. In parametric GTS there is no definition of purposeful system, so it is important to introduce new systemic parameter of purposefulness. In the article three main possibilities of introducing of this parameter are considered. The first is to introduce it as an attributive systemic parameter, the second, to introduce its relational parameter and the third is to introduce it as a subparameter.

Sokolenko M.N.
Full-content formal system
The purpose of this work is to define a formal system in its entirety. The subject of research is the classification of formal systems. Object of research is formal logic. This article proposes a standard for the construction of full-content formal systems. This article focuses on the problem of developing a theory of formal systems. We introduce the notion of a full-content formal systems. Highlights key elements of the full-content formal systems. The research is conducted through an analysis of the formal systems such authors as Bar-Hillel, I., A. Frenkel, and Bourbaki and on the basis of these elements making the key elements of the full-content formal system.